After visiting the monkey sanctuary that Monday before departing for the Shuar village in the rainforest, we continued with our original plan to visit Jardín Botánico Las Orquídeas (“The Orchids” Botanical Garden). We were definitely ill prepared for how awesome the visit would be. In 1980, accountant Omar Tello bought 7 hectares of pastureland just outside of Puyo—where the rainforest had once thrived. His patch of barren land was just like thousands more surrounding the area in that it had been stripped bare of vegetation so that it could support horses and cattle. But he had a plan to change all this. His dream was to restore this degraded patch of broken, grassy land to a lush, thriving tropical rainforest habitat. He started by erecting a fence to enclose his land, then he set about correcting the damages that the livestock had done to the soil. He used natural fertilizers and worked minimize soil erosion and was rewarded before too long by finding a few new plants species sprouting in his reserve. Each new species did its small part in stabilizing the ecosystem and gradually, the reserve’s biodiversity grew. Eventually trees began to sprout as undergrowth lived and died, continuously enriching the soil, and when the trees were tall and shady enough, vines began creeping their way up the trunks in search of sunlight as moss slowly followed, inching along year by year. Today his small patch of jungle, young as it still remains only 30 years later, boasts a higher floral biodiversity than any part of the jungle within hundreds of kilometers.
But as he worked to restore the vegetation in his reserve, Mr. Tello also began to catalogue animal life. Every species he found, he meticulously photographed and identified, slowly building a digital archive of the restoration process. At first, only destructive cicadas were to be found in the barren fields, but slowly butterflies, moths, and beetles began creeping in (no pun intended), and their presence allowed predators such as spiders and scorpions to follow along. Milipedes and a variety of snakes followed, and before too long, jungle frogs began to appear. Soon after, bats and monkeys and other mammals arrived, and the ecosystem finally, after 30 long years, began to resemble that of a healthy patch of rainforest.
In the Garden museum nestled among the vines of the garden jungle, you can follow the explosion of faunal biodiversity along the walls, each year labeled as a heading with photographs of the new creatures discovered in the garden that year. With thousands and thousands of documented new species, it’s impossible for him to display them all, but the series of cross-sectional slices of the new inhabitants of the jungle really gives you a sense of how each successive level of animals is more sensitive than the last, and can only thrive when the ecosystem has been properly stabilized by all of the predecessors.
With a left-to-right sweep of his arm around the room, Omar commented that “It took so much effort to stabilize the ecosystem enough to build the biodiversity up this way” but then with a slash of his arm around to the left he said, “but the slightest disturbance in the ecosystem, and you begin losing species in order back the other way”. His display really drove home the fragility of the ecosystem, as none of the successive species could thrive without the support of its predecessors. It’s incredible how complex the web of life really is.
But with that, we began our tour in earnest, which turned out to be a 4 hour hike, circumnavigating what felt like the whole park as Mr. Tello stopped periodically to introduce to us what felt like all of his best friends. He went through all of the medicinal plants, describing in incredible detail how indigenous people once used this plant to treat diabetics, that plant to help facilitate cervical dilation for childbirth, this plant to treat stomach ulcers, and a combination of those plants to treat for cancerous tumors. Keeping in mind how many complex modern drugs (especially antibiotics) are manufactured by minorly modifying chemicals found in natural plant remedies, it completely blew my mind to learn about the hundreds (and I’m sure Mr. Tello could have kept going into the thousands) of natural treatments discovered by ancient peoples. Granted, Omar was mixing the knowledge and uses of each plant accumulated by a multitude of different indigenous peoples over thousands of years, but it’s still impossible to try to imagine how all of these remedies were discovered. It was incredible, each plant seemed to have at least 5 uses—the bark of plant X was ground up for poultices, the meat of the stem ground to use for paint, the leaves crushed to treat ulcers, the seeds harvested and used for artisanal decorations… and so-on ad nauseam.
But clearly the pride of his park was its namesake–the orchids. His garden boasts over 300 different species of orchid, and it felt like we met each one. The white orchids with their symbiotic spider companions who protect them from hungry insects, the beautiful yellow ones that can only find the right amount of sunlight about 5 meters off the ground—so they grow on the side of trees, the miniscule red ones that stay out of the sun by growing on the underside of trees’ leaves, and hundreds more. It felt like he knew every single orchid in his park, and was like a proud parent showing them off. There was one orchid (pictured below) that I noticed had been tied onto a tree. When I inquired, he told me that this unlucky guy had fallen off in a storm, and he found it and rescued it, retying it to the tree at the proper height.
It was a wondrous experience in that forest, and even after 5 hours, it felt like the garden and its caretaker remained an endless fountain of surprises and knowledge. I’ve been in contact with Mr. Tello since that day, and I’m considering asking if he’d be willing to sponsor me if I apply for a Fulbright to do research there. It really was an incredible experience.